Funded by: Provincia Autonoma di Trento  
Calls: art. 21 Legge Provincia Autonoma di Trento N° 14 2005
Start date: 2016-07-01  End date: 2019-06-30
Total Budget: EUR 100.000.000,00  INO share of the total budget: EUR 1.600.000,00
Scientific manager: Ferrari Gabriele   and for INO is: Ferrari Gabriele

Organization/Institution/Company main assignee: CNR – Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO)

other Organization/Institution/Company involved:

other INO’s people involved:
Lamporesi Giacomo
Colzi Giacomo
Fava Eleonora

Abstract: The project consists in the development of experimental and theoretical lines of research on the physics of ultracold atoms and
quantum gases. The experimental laboratory of the BEC Center plans to operate on some fundamental themes that
include: measurements on the Kibble-Zurek mechanism for the spontaneous generation of quantum vortices and studies on the
mechanisms of mutual interaction between vortices; the measurement of the equation of state for weakly
interacting Bose gases ; the observation of the second sound in superfluid gases confined in a two-dimensional regime; observation
in ultracold gases of mechanisms similar to the fountain effect already known in superfluid helium. The first theme corresponds
to a completion of research currently underway relating to the observation of the Kibble mechanism-
Zurek which, in addition to having had wide resonance in the scientific community, has opened a new field of
research in the field of the study of interactions between quantized vortices. The most recent measurements are made with
a new experimental imaging technique developed by the Trento group that allows to visualize the
real-time dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in density regimes that were not accessible until now. Furthermore,
with this same technique it will finally be possible to perform a direct and accurate measurement of the equation of state
of a weakly interacting Bose gas, in the chemical potential / temperature variables. In parallel,
employing more traditional imaging techniques, we plan to study fundamental aspects of the mechanisms of
transport in interesting configurations, such as the propagation of second sound in
reduced dimensionality, the analogue of the fountain effect in diluted gases, the study of condensates in the presence of resonant coupling
between internal degrees of freedom. These experimental activities are developed in close connection with the research carried out
by the theoretical component of the BEC Center. The spectrum of theoretical activities will also include
broader topics on gases and quantum fluids, on superfluidity and coherence phenomena, the similarities between the properties of atomic gases
and other systems in the field of condensed matter, quantum optics and, more generally, in systems
where quantum mechanics manifests itself at the macroscopic level, offering opportunities for device development and
innovative systems.

INO’s Experiments/Theoretical Study correlated:
Experiments with ultra-cold atoms: Study of defects across phase transitions

The Scientific Results:
1) Observation of Spin Superfluidity in a Bose Gas Mixture
2) Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses
3) Creation and counting of defects in a temperature-quenched Bose-Einstein condensate
4) Spin-dipole oscillation and polarizability of a binary Bose-Einstein condensate near the miscible-immiscible phase transition
5) Vortex Reconnections and Rebounds in Trapped Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates
6) Quantum gases and quantum coherence
7) Observation of a spinning top in a Bose-Einstein condensate
8) A strontium optical lattice clock apparatus for precise frequency metrology and beyond
9) Sideband-Enhanced Cold Atomic Source for Optical Clocks