Fenomeni quantistici collettivi: dai sistemi fortemente correlati ai simulatori quantistici


Funded by: Ministero dell’Istruzione, Università e Ricerca (MIUR)  
Calls: PRIN 2010
Start date: 2012-10-25  End date: 2015-10-24
Total Budget: EUR 1.975.913,00  INO share of the total budget: EUR 160.997,00
Scientific manager: Casati Giulio   and for INO is: Minardi Francesco

Organization/Institution/Company main assignee: Università degli studi Insubria Varese-Como

other Organization/Institution/Company involved:

other INO’s people involved:

Abstract: Understanding the collective properties of matter in the quantum regime represents a fundamental challenge for the progress of both basic science and technological applications. In recent years, investigation methods developed in quantum information have proved to be extremely useful in the analysis of the properties of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. The cross-fertilization between condensed matter and quantum information finds one of its most promising avenues in ultracold atoms experiments. Manipulating the quantum states of ultracold atoms is nowadays feasible: experiments with Bose condensates in optical lattices may provide a clue for the solution of long-standing problems in quantum many-body physics, like the onset of the Mott transition, the occurrence of disordered non superfluid ground states, supersolidity, the dynamical evolution after a quantum quench, and many more. At the same time, these investigations may be relevant in the framework of quantum information, through the realization of many particle entangled states, which lie at the basis of any conceivable quantum technology. A solid
theoretical framework must be developed to interpret the existing experimental results and to stimulate new ideas.
We list in the following some avenues to be explored within this project.
– Thanks to the experimental advancements in realizing tunable, highly controlled, quantum many-body systems, it is getting real the possibility of directly emulating physical situations that are otherwise impervious to the so far available methods of experimental and theoretical investigation. It is therefore possible to implement Feynman’s seminal idea of quantum simulators. A privileged bench test for the exploration of quantum simulators are cold atoms in in a variety of configurations in optical lattices that will be investigated in this project.
– The physics of ultracold atoms in confined geometries is usually described at mean field level, but correlation effects play an important role in determining the collective properties of quantum systems. The physics of interacting quantum systems requires the development of highly controlled experimental platforms to test the available theoretical and numerical methods.
– The characterization of quantum phases through correlated variational wavefunctions experienced a boost since the development of improved numerical methods, like quantum Monte Carlo simulations, Lanczos diagonalizations and the density matrix renormalization group. This extremely valuable tool must be used and further improved to investigate novel quantum states of matter.
– Methods developed in the framework of quantum information theory proved to be a breakthrough for the detection of subtle phase transitions via numerical simulations. Tools from quantum information also provided support for numerical methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group or the design of new efficient simulation strategies for many-body quantum systems. Novel tools will be developed along these lines in order to investigate advanced models of complex quantum systems that may support novel types of collective phases and orders.
– Entanglement is a genuine quantum feature that has no counterpart in classical physics and enables decisive improvements in the performance of fundamental tasks for information and communication technologies with respect to the classical case. Entanglement represents an invaluable resource for quantum information and communication and towards the development of new quantum technologies. We intend to analyze the collective bipartite and multipartite features of entanglement, as such features should play an often crucial role in the development of future quantum technologies.
– Investigating the transport properties of quantum systems is likely to become a cornerstone for the development of new quantum technologies in nano-devices for energy storage and production. A joint experimental, theoretical and numerical effort in this direction may lead to a breakthrough in the field.
These are just few examples showing how a close synergy among experimental atom-based quantum emulators, theoretical tools and numerical schemes inspired by quantum information theory will allow for a growing understanding of many-body quantum physics, outreaching the traditional mean field paradigms towards a unifying picture of quantum complexity in terms of correlated and entangled quantum states, which will mark the frontier of the next technological leap. A combined effort in experiments, theory and simulations will be instrumental to develop novel, general tools for understanding, manipulating and forging new correlated, collective quantum states of matter. In such a perspective, this project gathers an outstanding community in many-body physics, quantum information, numerical simulations and state of the art experimental techniques to make a significant progress in the field.

INO’s Experiments/Theoretical Study correlated:
Quantum mixtures