Strategies to overcome photobleaching in algorithm-based adaptive optics for nonlinear in-vivo imaging
Authors: Müllenbroich M.C., McGhee E.J., Wright A.J., Anderson K.I., Mathieson K.
Autors Affiliation: University of Strathclyde, Scottish University Physics Alliance, Institute of Photonics, 106 Rottenrow, G4 0NW Glasgow, United Kingdom; Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Switchback Road, Bearsden, G61 1BD Glasgow, United Kingdom; University of Nottingham, Institute of Biophysics, Imaging and Optical Science, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
Abstract: We have developed a nonlinear adaptive optics microscope utilizing a deformable membrane mirror (DMM) and demonstrated its use in compensating for system- and sample-induced aberrations. The optimum shape of the DMM was determined with a random search algorithm optimizing on either two photon fluorescence or second harmonic signals as merit factors. We present here several strategies to overcome photobleaching issues associated with lengthy optimization routines by adapting the search algorithm and the experimental methodology. Optimizations were performed on extrinsic fluorescent dyes, fluorescent beads loaded into organotypic tissue cultures and the intrinsic second harmonic signal of these cultures. We validate the approach of using these preoptimized mirror shapes to compile a robust look-up table that can be applied for imaging over several days and through a variety of tissues. In this way, the photon exposure to the fluorescent cells under investigation is limited to imaging. Using our look-up table approach, we show signal intensity improvement factors ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 in organotypic tissue cultures and freshly excised mouse tissue. Imaging zebrafish in vivo, we demonstrate signal improvement by a factor of 2. This methodology is easily reproducible and could be applied to many photon starved experiments, for example fluorescent life time imaging, or when photobleaching is a concern.
Journal/Review: JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS
Volume: 19 (1) Pages from: 016021 to: 016021
More Information: MCM acknowledges funding from the Scottish University Physics Alliance (SUPA) under the INSPIRE (Industry SUPA People Innovative Research Exchange) scheme. AJW acknowledges financial support from the Royal Academy of Engineering. This work was kindly sponsored by Coherent Scotland Ltd. The authors a grateful to Max Nobis for growing the organotypic tissue cultures and to Niall McAlinden for helpful discussions on LabVIEW. The zebrafish samples were kindly provided by Rachel Verdon from the QMRI Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh.KeyWords: Deformable membrane mirrors; Experimental methodology; Improvement factors; Optimization routine; Organotypic tissue culture; Random search algorithm; Second harmonic signals; Two photon fluorescence, Aberrations; Adaptive optics; Fluorescence; Learning algorithms; Microscopic examination; Photobleaching; Photons; Signal analysis; Table lookup; Tissue; Tissue culture, Optimization, collagen; fluorescent dye, algorithm; animal; article; bleaching; cell differentiation; chemistry; computer program; confocal microscopy; diagnostic imaging; fluorescence microscopy; human; metabolism; methodology; mouse; neoplasm; normal distribution; optics; pathology; photon; refractometry; skin; zebra fish, Algorithms; Animals; Cell Differentiation; Collagen; Diagnostic Imaging; Fluorescent Dyes; Humans; Mice; Microscopy, Confocal; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Neoplasms; Normal Distribution; Optics and Photonics; Photobleaching; Photons; Refractometry; Skin; Software; ZebrafishDOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.1.016021