Dynamical equilibration across a quenched phase transition in a trapped quantum gas

Year: 2018

Authors: Liu I.-K., Donadello S., Lamporesi G., Ferrari G., Gou S.-K., Dalfovo F., Proukakis N.P.

Autors Affiliation: Joint Quantum Centre (JQC) Durham–Newcastle, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK; Department of Physics and Graduate Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50058, Taiwan; INO-CNR BEC Center and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy

Abstract: The formation of an equilibrium state from an uncorrelated thermal one through the dynamical crossing of a phase transition is a central question of quantum many-body physics.
During such crossing, the system breaks its symmetry by establishing numerous uncorrelated regions separated by spontaneously generated defects, whose emergence obeys a universal scaling law with quench duration. The ensuing re-equilibrating or “coarse-graining” stage is governed by the evolution and interactions of such defects under system-specific and external constraints. We perform a detailed numerical characterisation of the entire non-equilibrium process associated with the Bose–Einstein condensation phase transition in a three-dimensional gas of ultracold atoms, addressing subtle issues and demonstrating the quench-induced decoupling of condensate atom number and coherence growth during the re-equilibration process. Our findings agree, in a statistical sense, with experimental observations made at the later stages of the quench, and provide valuable information and useful dynamical visualisations in currently experimentally inaccessible regimes.


Volume: 1      Pages from: 24-1  to: 24-12

KeyWords: quench; turbulence; BEC formation
DOI: 10.1038/s42005-018-0023-6

Citations: 28
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