Scientific Results

Studies of an array of PbF2 Cherenkov crystal swith large-area SiPM readout

Year: 2015

Authors: Fienberg A.T., Alonzi L.P., Anastasi A., Bjorkquist R., Cauz D., Fatemi R., Ferrari C., Fioretti A., Fankenthal A., Gabbanini C., Gibbons L.K., Giovanetti K., Goadhouse S.D., Gohn, W.P., Gorringe T.P., Hertzog D.W., Iacovacci M., Kammel P., Kaspar J., Kiburg B., Li L., Mastroianni S., Pauletta G., Peterson D.A., Pocanic D., Smith M.W., Sweigart D.A., Tishchenko V., Venanzoni G., Van Wechel T.D., Wall K.B., Winter P., Yai K.

Autors Affiliation: University of Washington, Box 351560, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA; Laboratori Nazionali Frascati dell\’INFN, Frascati, Italy; INFN, Sezione di Trieste e G.C. di Udine, Udine, Italy; INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli, Italy; Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del C.N.R., UOS Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra dell\’Universit√† di Messina, Messina, Italy; Universit√† di Napoli, Napoli, Italy; Universit√† di Udine, Udine, Italy; University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA; University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA; James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, USA; Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai, China; Osaka University Graduate School of Science, Osaka, Japan

Abstract: The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g – 2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cherenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. We report here on measurements and simulations using 2.0-4.6 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array. All data were obtained using fast waveform digitizers to accurately capture signal pulse shapes vs. energy, impact position, angle, and crystal wrapping. The SiPMs were gain matched using a laser-based calibration system, which also provided a stabilization procedure that allowed gain correction to a level of 10(-4) per hour. After accounting for longitudinal fluctuation losses, those crystals wrapped in a white, diffusive wrapping exhibited an energy resolution sigma/E of (13.4 +/- 0.1)% /root E/GeV, while those wrapped in a black, absorptive wrapping had (4.6 +/- 0.3)%/ root E/GeV. The white-wrapped crystals having nearly twice the total light collection display a generally wider and impact-position-dependent pulse shape owing to the dynamics of the light propagation, in comparison to the black-wrapped crystals, which have a narrower pulse shape that is insensitive to impact position. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Journal/Review: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

Volume: 783      Pages from: 12  to: 21

More Information: We thank Adam Para for the initial suggestion to test PbF2 as a candidate material and for excellent advice on evaluating and choosing SiPM products. Tianchi Zhao negotiated the original contract with SICCAS and helped evaluate early samples. Carsten Nast, Keith Jobe and Zenon Szalata hosted this effort at the SLAC ESTB facility, which is supported under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) MRI program (PHY-1337542), by the DOE Offices of Nuclear (DE-FG02-97ER41020) and High Energy Physics (DE-SC0008037), by the NSF Physics Division (PHY-1205792, PHY-1307328, PHY-1307196, DGE-1144153), by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy), and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375115) and the Shanghai Pujiang Program (13PJ1404200).
KeyWords: Electromagnetic calorimeter; Lead-fluoride crystals; Silicon photomultiplier
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.02.028

Citations: 19
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