Scientific Results

A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin

Year: 2014

Authors: Pagano G., Mancini M., Cappellini G., Lombardi P., Schaefer F., Hu H., Liu X. J., Catani J., Sias C., Inguscio M., Fallani L.

Autors Affiliation: LENS European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Sesto Fiorentino 50019, Italy;
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Pisa 56126, Italy;
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino 50019, Italy;
Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122, Australia;
INO-CNR Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del CNR, Sezione di Sesto Fiorentino, Sesto Fiorentino 50019, Italy

Abstract: Correlations in systems with spin degree of freedom are at the heart of fundamental phenomena, ranging from magnetism to superconductivity. The effects of correlations depend strongly on dimensionality, a striking example being one-dimensional (1D) electronic systems, extensively studied theoretically over the past fifty years(1-7). However, the experimental investigation of the role of spin multiplicity in 1D fermions-and especially for more than two spin components-is still lacking. Here we report on the realization of 1D, strongly correlated liquids of ultracold fermions interacting repulsively within SU(N) symmetry, with a tunable number N of spin components. We observe that static and dynamic properties of the system deviate from those of ideal fermions and, for N > 2, from those of a spin-1/2 Luttinger liquid. In the large-N limit, the system exhibits properties of a bosonic spinless liquid. Our results provide a testing ground for many-body theories and may lead to the observation of fundamental 1D effects(8).

Journal/Review: NATURE PHYSICS

Volume: 10 (3)      Pages from: 198  to: 201

More Information: We would like to thank all the members of the Ultracold Quantum Gases group in Florence for fruitful discussions. We are indebted to P. Calabrese for enlightening discussions on the physics of 1D quantum systems, and to P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi and P. De Natale for early valuable contributions to the experimental set-up. We also thank M. Dalmonte A. Recati and M. Polini for valuable discussions. This work has been financially supported by IIT Seed Project ENCORE, ERC Advanced Grant DISQUA, EU FP7 Integrated Projects AQUTE and SIQS, MIUR Project PRIN2009, ARC Discovery Projects (Grants No. DP0984522 and No. DP0984637) and NFRP-China (Grant No. 2011CB921502).
DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2878

Citations: 192
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