Scientific Results

Fat emulsions as diffusive reference standards for tissue simulating phantoms?

Year: 2012

Authors: Di Ninni P., Bérubé-Lauzière Y., Mercatelli L., Sani E., Martelli F.

Autors Affiliation: Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino 50019, Firenze, Italy;
Département de génie électrique et de génie informatique, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 boul Université, Sherbrooke, Québec J1K 2R1, Canada;
CNR Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze Italy

Abstract: Intralipid 20% was recently suggested as a diffusive reference standard for tissue simulating phantoms. In this work, we extend previously obtained results to other fat emulsions, specifically Intralipid 10%, Intralipid 30%, Lipovenoes 10%, Lipovenoes 10% PhosphoLipid Reduced, Lipovenoes 20%, Lipofundin S 10%, and Lipofundin S 20%. Of particular importance for practical applications, our measurements carried out at a wavelength of 751 nm show the following features. First, these products show high stability and small batch-to-batch variations in their diffusive optical properties, similar to Intralipid 20%. Second, the absorption coefficient of Intralipid, Lipovenoes, and Lipofundin S are very similar and their measured values are within the experimental errors; moreover the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 20%, Lipovenoes 20%, and Lipofundin S 20% are similar and their measured values are within 5%. Third, the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 10% and Intralipid 30% can be scaled from that of Intralipid 20% with an error of 9% and 2%, respectively. A similar scaling property is valid for Lipovenoes and Lipofundin S. We have verified that this scaling property depends on the composition of the fat emulsions: If the ingredients exactly scale with the concentration then the reduced scattering coefficient almost exactly scale as well. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America

Journal/Review: APPLIED OPTICS

Volume: 51 (30)      Pages from: 7176  to: 7182

More Information: The research leading to these results has been funded by the European Community under grant agreement No. FP7-HEALTH-F5-2008-201076. These results were obtained during the sabbatical leave of professor Yves Berube-Lauziere at the Universita degli Studi di Firenze from May to August 2011. YBL acknowledges support from the European Erasmus Mundus Program for Scholars for his stay in Europe during 2011. He is member of the FRQ-S-funded Centre de recherche clinique Etienne-Le Bel. This research has also been partially funded by the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). We wish to thank professor Giovanni Zaccanti for his useful suggestions on the analysis of the experiments and professor Alwin Kienle for providing us Lipoveneos 10% PLR.
KeyWords: Algorithms; Fat Emulsions, Intravenous; Humans; Light; Nephelometry and Turbidimetry; Particle Size; Phantoms, Imaging; Reference Standards; Reproducibility of Results; Scattering, Radiation; Spectrophotometry
DOI: 10.1364/AO.51.007176

Citations: 20
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