Limit cycle phase and Goldstone mode in driven dissipative systems

Year: 2021

Authors: Alaeian H.; Giedke G.; Carusotto I.; Ltzw R.; Pfau T.

Autors Affiliation: 5th Institute of Physics, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany; Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany; Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain; Ikerbasque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, E-48013 Bilbao, Spain; INO-CNR BEC Center and Department of Physics, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo, Italy

Abstract: In this article, we theoretically investigate the first- and second-order quantum dissipative phase transitions of a three-mode cavity with a Hubbard interaction. In both types, there is a mean-field (MF) limit cycle phase where the local U(1) symmetry and the time-translational symmetry of the Liouvillian superoperator are spontaneously broken. In MF, this spontaneous symmetry breaking manifests itself through the appearance of an unconditionally and fully squeezed state at the cavity output, connected to the well-known Goldstone mode. By employing the Wigner function formalism, hence, properly including the quantum noise, we show that away from the thermodynamic limit and within the quantum regime, fluctuations notably limit the coherence time of the Goldstone mode due to the phase diffusion. Our theoretical predictions suggest that interacting multimode photonic systems are rich, versatile test beds for investigating the crossovers between the mean-field picture and quantum phase transitions, a problem that can be investigated in various platforms including superconducting circuits, semiconductor microcavities, atomic Rydberg polaritons, and cuprite excitons.


Volume: 103 (1)      Pages from: 013712-1  to: 013712-15

KeyWords: Laser
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.103.013712