Experimental test of fluctuation relations for driven open quantum systems with an NV center
Authors: Hernandez-Gomez S., Staudenmaier N., Campisi M., Fabbri N.
Autors Affiliation: European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy (LENS), Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019, Italy; Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Del Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche (CNR-INO), Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019, Italy; Nest, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, I-56127, Italy; Infn – Sezione di Pisa, Pisa, I-56127, Italy;
Abstract: The experimental verification of quantum fluctuation relations for driven open quantum system is currently a challenge, due to the conceptual and operative difficulty of distinguishing work and heat. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has been recently proposed as a controlled test bed to study fluctuation relations in the presence of an engineered dissipative channel, in absence of work (Hernbndez-Gumez et al 2020 Phys. Rev. Res. 2 023327). Here, we extend those studies to exploring the validity of quantum fluctuation relations in a driven-dissipative scenario, where the spin exchanges energy both with its surroundings because of a thermal gradient, and with an external work source. We experimentally prove the validity of the quantum fluctuation relations in the presence of cyclic driving in two cases, when the spin exchanges energy with an effective infinite-temperature reservoir, and when the total work vanishes at stroboscopic times – although the power delivered to the NV center is non-null. Our results represent the first experimental study of quantum fluctuation relation in driven open quantum systems.
Journal/Review: NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS
Volume: 23 (6) Pages from: 065004-1 to: 065004-12
KeyWords: quantum thermodynamics; quantum fluctuation relations; nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond; open quantum systemsDOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/abfc6a