The Asian tropopause aerosol layer within the 2017 monsoon anticyclone: microphysical properties derived from aircraft-borne in situ measurements

Year: 2021

Authors: Mahnke Christoph; Weigel Ralf; Cairo Francesco; Vernier Jean-Paul; Afchine Armin; Kraemer Martina; Mitev Valentin; Matthey Renaud; Viciani Silvia; D’Amato Francesco; Ploeger Felix; Deshler Terry; Borrmann Stephan

Autors Affiliation: Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, ISAC-CNR, Rome, Italy
National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia, USA
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA
Institute of Energy and Climate Research – IEK7, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, CSEM SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Institut de Physique, Université de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA

Abstract: The Asian summer monsoon is an effective pathway for aerosol particles and precursors from the planetary boundary layer over Central, South, and East Asia into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. An enhancement of aerosol particles within the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA), called the Asian tropopause aerosol layer (ATAL), has been observed by satellites. We discuss airborne in situ and remote sensing observations of aerosol microphysical properties conducted during the 2017 StratoClim field campaign within the AMA region. The aerosol particle measurements aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica
(maximum altitude reached of about 20:5 km) were conducted with a modified ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometer – airborne (UHSAS-A; particle diameter detection range of 65 nm to 1 μm), the COndensation PArticle counting System (COPAS, detecting total concentrations of submicrometer-sized particles), and the New Ice eXpEriment – Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Detection of POLarization (NIXE-CAS-DPOL). In the COPAS and UHSASA vertical particle mixing ratio (PMR) profiles and the size distribution profiles (for number, surface area, and volume concentration), the ATAL is evident as a distinct layer between about 370 and 420K potential temperature (2). Within the ATAL, the maximum detected PMRs (from the median profiles) were about 700 mg-1 for particle diameters between 65 nm and 1 μm (UHSAS-A) and higher than 2500 mg-1 for diameters larger than 10 nm (COPAS). These values are up to 2 times higher than those previously found at similar altitudes in other tropical locations. The difference between the PMR profiles measured by the UHSAS-A and the COPAS indicate that the region below the ATAL at Theta levels from 350 to 370K is influenced by the nucleation of aerosol particles (diameter < 65 nm). We provide detailed analyses of the vertical distribution of the aerosol particle size distributions and the PMR and compare these with previous tropical and extratropical measurements. The backscatter ratio (BR) was calculated based on the aerosol particle size distributions measured in situ. The resulting data set was compared with the vertical profiles of the BR detected by the multiwavelength aerosol scatterometer (MAS) and an airborne miniature aerosol lidar (MAL) aboard the M55 Geophysica and by the satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The data of all four methods largely agree with one another, showing enhanced BR values in the altitude range of the ATAL (between about 15 and 18.5 km) with a maximum at 17.5 km altitude. By means of the AMA-centered equivalent latitude calculated from meteorological reanalysis data, it is shown that such enhanced values of the BR larger than 1.1 could only be observed within the confinement of the AMA. Journal/Review: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS (PRINT)

Volume: 21 (19)      Pages from: 15259  to: 15282

More Information: Some of our research leading to the presented results received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union´s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013; ERC grant agreement no. 321040, EXCATRO). The StratoClim project was funded by the EU (FP7/2007-2018 grant no. 603557) and was also supported by the German “Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung” (BMBF) under the joint ROMIC project SPITFIRE (grant no. 01LG1205A). The balloon-borne LPC and CNC measurements from Hyderabad were supported by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the measurements from Laramie were supported by the US National Science Foundation (grant no. 1011827).
KeyWords: particle-size distribution; lower stratospehere; upper troposphere; condensation nuclei; formation NPF; Asian Monsoon Anticyclon; ATAL; airborne measurements
DOI: 10.5194/acp-21-15259-2021