Scientific Results

Roadmap on neurophotonics

Year: 2016

Authors: Cho KY., Zheng GA., Augustine GJ., Hochbaum D., Cohen A., Knopfel T., Pisanello F., Pavone FS., Vellekoop IM., Booth MJ., Hu S., Zhu J., Chen ZP., Hoshi Y.

Autors Affiliation: Univ Connecticut, Inst Syst Genom, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, 191 Auditorium Rd, Storrs, CT 06269 USA;‎ Univ Connecticut, Dept Biomed Engn, Storrs, CT 06269 USA; Nanyang Technol Univ, Lee Kong Chian Sch Med, 50 Nanyang Dr,Res Techno Plaza, Singapore 637553, Singapore; Harvard Univ, Harvard Stem Cell Inst, Dept Chem, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;‎ Harvard Univ, Harvard Stem Cell Inst, Dept Biol Chem, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA; Harvard Univ, Harvard Stem Cell Inst, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA; Harvard Univ, Howard Hughes Med Inst, 12 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;‎ Imperial Coll London, Dept Med, Div Brain Sci, London W12 0NN, England;‎ IIT, Ctr Biomol Nanotechnol, Via Barsanti Sn, I-73010 Lecce, Italy;‎ Univ Florence, European Lab Non Linear Spect, Via N Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy; Univ Florence, Dept Phys, Via G Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Ist Nazl Ottica, Lgo E Fermi 2, I-50100 Florence, Italy;‎ Univ Twente, MIRA Inst Biomed Technol & Tech Med, Biomed Photon Imaging Grp, POB 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands:‎ Univ Oxford, Ctr Neural Circuits & Behav, Mansfield Rd, Oxford OX1 3SR, England; Univ Oxford, Dept Engn Sci, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PJ, England; Univ Oxford, Dept Engn Sci, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PJ, England; Univ Virginia, Dept Biomed Engn, 415 Lane Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA;‎ Univ Calif Irvine, Beckman Laser Inst, 1002 Hlth Sci Rd East, Irvine, CA 92617 USA;‎ Hamamatsu Univ, Sch Med, Preeminent Med Photon Educ & Res Ctr, Dept Biomed Opt,Inst Med Photon Res,Higashi Ku, 1-20-1 Handayama, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 4313192, Japan

Abstract: Mechanistic understanding of how the brain gives rise to complex behavioral and cognitive functions is one of science’s grand challenges. The technical challenges that we face as we attempt to gain a systems-level understanding of the brain are manifold. The brain’s structural complexity requires us to push the limit of imaging resolution and depth, while being able to cover large areas, resulting in enormous data acquisition and processing needs. Furthermore, it is necessary to detect functional activities and ‘map’ them onto the structural features. The functional activity occurs at multiple levels, using electrical and chemical signals. Certain electrical signals are only decipherable with sub-millisecond timescale resolution, while other modes of signals occur in minutes to hours. For these reasons, there is a wide consensus that new tools are necessary to undertake this daunting task. Optical techniques, due to their versatile and scalable nature, have great potentials to answer these challenges. Optical microscopy can now image beyond the diffraction limit, record multiple types of brain activity, and trace structural features across large areas of tissue. Genetically encoded molecular tools opened doors to controlling and detecting neural activity using light in specific cell types within the intact brain. Novel sample preparation methods that reduce light scattering have been developed, allowing whole brain imaging in rodent models. Adaptive optical methods have the potential to resolve images from deep brain regions. In this roadmap article, we showcase a few major advances in this area, survey the current challenges, and identify potential future needs that may be used as a guideline for the next steps to be taken.

Journal/Review: JOURNAL OF OPTICS

Volume: 18 (9)      Pages from: 093007-1  to: 093007-26

KeyWords: neurophotonics; brain; imaging; biophotonics; microscopy; neuroscience; spectroscopy
DOI: 10.1088/2040-8978/18/9/093007

Citations: 19
data from “WEB OF SCIENCE” (of Thomson Reuters) are update at: 2021-07-25
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