Electrical and optical chemical gas sensing

Nanowires and thin films of nanostructured metal-oxide semiconductors oxides target the development of gas sensors for environmental, agroalimentary, safety and industrial applications.

The electrical and functional properties of developed layers are studied with AC, DC and work function measurements towards environmental and polluting gaseous species. Chemoresistive properties of the nanostructures are also studied both analytically and numerically from the fundamental point of view of surface-gas interaction. The objective is to use these sensors to monitor the air quality with sensitivity, selectivity and reliability comparable to that of conventional analytical devices. They can also be employed inside an wlwctronic nose; therefore, they fit perfectly integration of measurements of outdoor pollutants and confined and semi confined ambient applications, from both fixed and mobile web-enabled stations.

Nanowires of ZnO and SnO2 show photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room temperature. Reversible modification of static photoluminescence efficiency was obtained upon exposure to low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. We first demonstrated this effect in 2005 for SnO2 nanowires: few ppm of NO2 significantly quenched the visible PL emission of nanowires, not affected by variation of relative humidity, at 120°C. This allows the development of all optical gas sensor , where contacts are not needed.As for SnO2, the PL spectrum of ZnO is quenched by interaction with NO2 in a reversible way, with optimum results at room temperature. In this case the cross interference of other gases like ethanol and relative humidity is not negligible and must be taken in account, while no response was observed for CO. The effect of humidity should be ascribed to room temperature operation of the sensor. The possibility to use the sensor at room temperature is interesting when dealing with gas detection in explosive environment. The lowest concentration detected was 0.1ppm, the attention level for outdoor detection. UV LED was successfully used as alternative cheap and low power light source to excite PL signal.

NO2 interaction with gases has been studied more in detail at room temperature by mean of Time Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) studies. While the decrease in PL intensity is linearly proportional to surface density of adbsorbed molecules (assuming a Langmuir–like adsorption of gas molecule on the semiconductor surface), the recombination rates are not significantly affected by interaction with NO2. This suggests that NO2 acts as static quenchers, determining a change in the number of states acting as radiative recombination centers.

G. Faglia, C. Baratto, G. Sberveglieri, M. Zha and A. Zappettini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011923 (2005)
Comini E, Faglia G, Sberveglieri G, Pan Z, Wang Z (2002) Appl. Phys. Lett. 81:1869-1871
Lettieri S., Amato L.S., Maddalena P., Comini E., Baratto C., Todros S., Recombination dynamics of deep defect states in zinc oxide nanowires, Nanotechnology, Volume 20, Issue 17, Apr 2009, 175706
Lettieri S., Setaro A., Bismuto A., Maddalena P., Baratto C., Comini E., Todros, S., Sberveglieri, G., Light Emission Properties of SnO2 Nanowires for Applications in Gas Sensing, Sensor Letters, Volume 6,Number 4, August 2008, pp. 596-600(5)

Dynamic variation of the PL signal from ZnO NWs towards pulses of NO2. The range of concentration tested is from 0.1 ppm to 2 ppm. Excitation=UV LED; Collection: macro-PL setup
Working scheme of optical sensor with low cost excitationa and detection

Personale INO dipendente:
Baratto Camilla, Ponzoni Andrea,

Personale associato:
Faglia Guido Pietro,