A dual mode breath sampler for the collection of the end-tidal and dead space fractions
Authors: Salvo P., Ferrari C., Persia R., Ghimenti S., Lomonaco T., Bellagambi F., Di Francesco F.
Autors Affiliation: Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa, Italy; National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, (INO) – UOS Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Abstract: This work presents a breath sampler prototype automatically collecting end-tidal (single and multiple breaths) or dead space air fractions (multiple breaths). This result is achieved by real time measurements of the CO2 partial pressure and airflow during the expiratory and inspiratory phases. Suitable algorithms, used to control a solenoid valve, guarantee that a Nalophan (R) bag is filled with the selected breath fraction even if the subject under test hyperventilates. The breath sampler has low pressure drop (<0.5 kPa) and uses inert or disposable components to avoid bacteriological risk for the patients and contamination of the breath samples. A fully customisable software interface allows a real time control of the hardware and software status. The performances of the breath sampler were evaluated by comparing (a) the CO2 partial pressure calculated during the sampling with the CO2 pressure measured off-line within the Nalophan (R) bag; (b) the concentrations of four selected volatile organic compounds in dead space, end-tidal and mixed breath fractions. Results showed negligible deviations between calculated and off-line CO2 pressure values and the distributions of the selected compounds into dead space, end-tidal and mixed breath fractions were in agreement with their chemical-physical properties. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IPEM. Journal/Review: MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS
Volume: 37 (6) Pages from: 539 to: 544
More Information: This study was supported by the Italian Department of Research, project PRIN 2005 “Innovative systems based on sensor array for monitoring of biomarkers as diagnostic tools”.KeyWords: Breath sampler; Breath analysis; End-tidal; Dead space; DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2015.03.013Citations: 11data from “WEB OF SCIENCE” (of Thomson Reuters) are update at: 2020-10-18References taken from IsiWeb of Knowledge: (subscribers only)Connecting to view paper tab on IsiWeb: Click hereConnecting to view citations from IsiWeb: Click here