New Insights into the Ageing of Linseed Oil Paint Binder: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analytical Study
Authors: Bonaduce I., Carlyle L., Colombini M.P., Duce C., Ferrari C., Ribechini E., Selleri P., Tine M.R.
Autors Affiliation: Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Ind., Universita` di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Departamento de Conservação e Restauro, FCT/UNL, Caparica, Portugal; National Institute of Optics (INO) del CNR, Pisa, Italy
Abstract: This paper presents an analytical investigation of paint reconstructions prepared with linseed oil that have undergone typical 19th century treatments in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot, which was then processed by various methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. A modern process lead white (Dutch source, Schoonhoven) and a commercially available vine black were used as pigments. The reconstructions were prepared in 1999, and naturally aged from then onwards. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG), which yields macromolecular information, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DEMS), which both provide molecular information. The study enabled us to quantitatively demonstrate, for the first time, that the parameters used to identify drying oils are deeply influenced by the history of the paint. In particular, here we show that the ratio between the relative amounts of palmitic and stearic acid (P/S), which is used as an index for differentiating between drying oils, is extremely dependent on the pigments present and the age of the paint. Moreover the study revealed that neither the P/S parameter nor the ratios between the relative amounts of the various dicarboxylic acids (azelaic over suberic and azelaic over sebacic) can be used to trace the sorts of pre-treatment undergone by the oil investigated in this study. The final results represent an important milestone for the scientific community working in the field, highlighting that further research is still necessary to solve the identification of drying oils in works of art.
Journal/Review: PLOS ONE
Volume: 7 (11) Pages from: e49333 to: e49333
More Information: Support by Dr. Jaap Boon in the MOLArt and De Mayerne programmes funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The
funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscriptKeyWords: THERMAL-ANALYSIS; SPECTROSCOPY; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049333Citations: 78data from “WEB OF SCIENCE” (of Thomson Reuters) are update at: 2022-01-16References taken from IsiWeb of Knowledge: (subscribers only)Connecting to view paper tab on IsiWeb: Click hereConnecting to view citations from IsiWeb: Click here