Variational Monte Carlo study of soliton excitations in hard-sphere Bose gases
Authors: Rota R., Giorgini S.
Autors Affiliation: Univ Paris 07, Lab Mat & Phenomenes Quant, F-75205 Paris 13, France; CNRS, F-75205 Paris 13, France; Univ Trento, Dipartimento Fis, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy; CNR, BEC Ctr, INO, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy
Abstract: By using a full many-body approach, we calculate the excitation energy, the effective mass, and the density profile of soliton states in a three-dimensional Bose gas of hard spheres at zero temperature. The many-body wave function used to describe the soliton contains a one-body term, derived from the solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and a two-body Jastrow term, which accounts for the repulsive correlations between atoms. We optimize the parameters in the many-body wave function via a variational Monte Carlo procedure, calculating the grand-canonical energy and the canonical momentum of the system in a moving reference frame where the soliton is stationary. As the density of the gas is increased, significant deviations from the mean-field predictions are found for the excitation energy and the density profile of both dark and gray solitons. In particular, the soliton effective mass m* and the mass m Lambda N of missing particles in the region of the density depression are smaller than the result from the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, their ratio, however, being well reproduced by this theory up to large values of the gas parameter. We also calculate the profile of the condensate density around the soliton notch, finding good agreement with the prediction of the local-density approximation.
Journal/Review: PHYSICAL REVIEW A
Volume: 92 (4) Pages from: 043635-1 to: 043635-5